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Kraków, Poland (the art of hospital buildings of Krakau) - Szpital Uniwersytecki w Krakowie (University Hospital in Kraków), Mikołaja Kopernika

History of the University Hospital in Krakow
General Hospital St. Lazarus was established in 1788. After all, to understand its origins one has to go back in the rich history of the number of hospitals in Krakow to mention at least two. The longest and najnobliwszą story has a hospital of St. Spirit, begun the thirteenth century. This hospital which is under the care of the monks called Duchakami, was intended for the sick and for foundlings. The Order, however, had the centuries old beautiful traditions, so declined in the late eighteenth century, in 1783, was abolished. The hospital, however, for some time still remained.
And a few words about the other hospitals . In 1714, the Bishop Michael Szembek brought from Warsaw to Krakow "Miss peculiar to works of mercy with God’s provocation", thus called the Daughters of Charity or, in French, Szarytkami. It was a small hospital at St. John, originally designed for patients (men and women in half) in the time-honored hospital number 12, and for orphans. In the eyes of a critical inspector, which on behalf of the Bishop of AS Zaluski was Mr A. Łopacki, but the priest and doctor of medicine, the hospital did not raise any objections, and therefore did not make the usual in such cases, claims and commands "what could be used to good governance, as those in which there are excellent", on the contrary praised " incessant zeal and diligence " nuns.
The work of the National Education Commission (established in 1773 ) was a fundamental reform of the University of Cracow Its activities also referred to the Faculty of Medicine. Thanks to the active attitude of Andrew Badurskiego (1740-1789) was the first in Poland teaching hospital in pojezuickim building at St. Barbara in the Small Square. He had indeed only eight beds (four for men and four for women), but it gave an opportunity to teach "at the bedside." The activity was supported Badurskiego activity Czerwiakowski Raphael Joseph (1743-1816), professor of anatomy, surgery and obstetrics. Came more patients, increased level of assistance provided, however, decreased "usable area " because it is decorated room, anatomical, a pharmacy, a separate room occupied surgical and maternity patients .
To ensure proper patient care and nursing, was the idea, at first it seemed reasonable to bring to the hospital Sisters of Mercy, which are relatively new so beautifully wrote in his report, I Łopacki. And so it happened. How will the future was not a fortunate move .
Meanwhile, at once keenly felt the need to bring in Krakow General Hospital, where did the municipal authorities and the clergy were aware. Problem solved referring to the old General Hospital St . Lazarus. In 1787, he was bought for a price of 20 000 Polish zlotys, which introduced the primate Michal Poniatowski, the impoverished former monastery of the Carmelites. In April 1788 the academic hospital of St. Barbara has been transferred to that hospital for Merry. Since then, the fate of the university of medicine will bind to this district and its main street, which in the early nineteenth century will take the name of Nicolaus Copernicus, and the history of the hospital of St . Lazarus from the right side.
The clinic was isolated little space. The hospital was calculated on the 200-bed hospital had only 24 beds: 12 for internal medicine clinic, 8 to surgical clinic, 4 on the maternity clinic. The rest of the hospital subject to the physician-in-chief title physics, so named was fizykatem. It had a common ward for patients with internal diseases and surgery, a division of maternal and premium, infants and foundlings branch and a branch of cripples. Infants with suckler, older children with a babysitter, the midwife and the service was moved here from the hospital of St. Spirit.
Chief doctor of the hospital was a physicist Professor A. Badurski, and next to him acted as a surgeon and obstetrician Professor RJ Czerwiakowski. They also were managers conducted clinics and clinical teaching.
The combination of the Sisters of Charity of hospital clinics was about to be a very unfortunate move. The dispute over jurisdiction, especially in view of the legal shortcomings (the end it was not known whether the sisters are at the service of clinics and clinics reside in the hospital sisters) , was born and it is very fast, the need to find another room, so that the supremacy clinics should clearly and exclusively to the authorities university. The solution to the problem "lokalowego" we had to wait several years. This created favorable circumstances: an energetic attitude, having political influence Prof. MJ Brodowicza (1790-1885), an outbreak of cholera, which was to have its source in a crowded hospital, and finally, and most importantly the generosity of members of the Masonic Lodge " Superstition Loser " that solving a box, sent his building at ul . Copernicus for clinical purposes. To it also in 1827 moved all three clinics. Professors: M.J.Brodowicz, L.Bierkowski, J. Kwasniewski ceased to be so far promariuszami branches. In the future do not have to be that way . After entering the patients ‘clinical’ hospital has gained a new room. By creating a singular surgical ward, there was a division of patients. Full autonomy, with a separate branch of the physicist received only in 1832.
New facilities for clinics Street. Copernicus 7 at first seemed to be sufficiently extensive, but not for long. Overcrowding gave up soon felt. It must be remembered that at this time the size of the building does not meet current but was only a part of the center in a square. Hurdle became especially screams emerging maternal and infant crying. Therefore, in 1836 it was decided to return to the hospital maternity hospital of St . Lazarus. Clinic has survived there until 1869. Then came back section .
Science Museum. Spirit, after the abolition of the law, had lost its previous function and became a refuge. Since 1821, Krakow was liquidated two hospitals, namely: Hospital of St . Sebastian and Roch (St Sebastiana meadows) for patients with venereal disease and a hospital for the mentally ill, or "mad house" or "pacarellów" (Street Hospital), patients were moved to a hospital room St. Spirit, forming two branches there. Later, ie after the fall of the Republic and the incarnation of Cracow in Galicia, in 1855, hospitals St. Lazarus and St. Spirit, have come under single management, so remember them here together.
In 1862 Anthony Rosner (1831-1896) was in Krakow the first associated professor of Dermatology and Venereology, and began teaching the subject. Since then, venereal disease ward for patients became basically Clinic skin-GUM departments, although the cathedral was formally approved in 1871 .
In October 1866 for gynecological maternity-clinic – Maternity Madurowicz – came Maurice (1831-1893). Thanks to his strenuous efforts, led by the clinic, was in 1869 moved to a house of Prof. Brodowicza (near the inner and surgical clinics), which sold to the University ‘s goal. Branch gynecological-obstetric hospital of St . Lazarus – however, still remained in place, and the Madurowicz the responsibilities prymariusza (primarius).
In the second half of the nineteenth century, especially after the Galician autonomy had positive changes occured in the development of the hospital of St . Lazarus, particularly in terms of its structure. There has been a development of the old building as well as an excellent operator and a great organizer which Alfred Obaliński (1843-1898), prymariusz surgical ward, has led to the superstructure of the second floor in the main hospital building . There, surgical patients were transferred and held (until now) the operating room. This took place in 1878.
At that time, intensive work on the construction of the new building of the hospital. Scheduled back to the time of the Cracow Republic was not completed due to economic difficulties. Returning to the issue repeatedly, yet to finalize had to wait a long time. It was not until January 1, 1879 was opened the main building of the hospital board (17 Copernicus Street) and two parallel pavilions in which patients placed internally (a division IA and IB) .
Empty space in the old hospital was occupied by the clinic, skin-GUM departments, transferred here from the hospital of St. Spirit (year 1879). In the same year , the mentally ill were placed in the new building, which was built in the gardens of the Hospital of St . Lazarus (Hospital St . Spirit henceforth ceased to exist, and a few years later it was demolished).
Beyond any doubt, the greatest organizational achievement of Prof. Obalińskiego was to build "pavilion" (as it was then called the hospital buildings standing loosely) surgery. According to his own design at the architectural support Professor K. Zaremba, no small expense, he stood in 1893 at. Copernicus, vis a vis the surgical clinic, red brick building, hereinafter called the " red surgery ." Since then, it housed the hospital surgery ward of St . Lazarus. The room on the second floor of an old building, it will take from now on and until now, the branch and clinic skin-venereologist . Also spreads division obstetrics-gynecology .
In the coming years the cathedral professor of gynecology and obstetrics Madurowicz (year 1863), habilitation of pediatric Leon Maciej Jakubowski and a year later started lecturing. The result is a cathedral pediatrics, and 1873, when professor Jakubowski was appointed professor, a division became converted into a clinic. Three years later, the clinic moved to a new building of the hospital of St. Louis, along with a detachment at Arms. The maternity ward in 1895 comes to the division of the ward and branch training for midwives .
In the nineteenth century one dit not feel the need to isolate patients with infectious disease, so "fever" patients have been placed on the internal medicine wards. An exception in epidemic periods when a large number of patients were forced to seek periodically rooms at hospitals. The impetus for the establishment of a separate branch of Asiatic cholera was the case in 1892, the domestic unit, which became the cause of the descent of some sick women. Thus, efforts to establish a new branch in a separate building met with understanding. Was given for this purpose storey building near the surgical pavilion. Wretched condition of the building and the constant threat of new epidemics, overriding factors led to the construction of a hospital in a garden at a sufficient distance from other branches, a separate building, at first storey, which from then on was a branch of infectious diseases. This took place in 1905.
The second half of the nineteenth century was characterized by the formation of what it once the new specialty. In the hospital of St . Lazarus was reflected in the establishment of additional branches. So in 1880 in the lower areas of the branch IB there is a branch of eye diseases led by prof. L. Rydel. A few years later ( year 1893) he will find extensive facilities in the main administrative building on the first floor of the hospital.
The underground "Red surgery" while tied S. Pieniążek ENT department (hereinafter assigned the patients had surgical ward). In 1899, a branch of laryngological transformed into the clinic. A few years later acquired the miserable room in budyneczku the infectious ward, which was given to it to survive two world wars .
At the end of the nineteenth century, ul. Copernicus 15 near the main hospital building St . Lazarus or the administration building on the west side, which is closer to the city, a new internal medicine clinic to which patients were transferred from the former Masonic lodge .
In this state, he finds the hospital of St . Lazarus World War. With the intended redevelopment pavilions internal medicine IA and IB had to be abandoned. One of the two barracks for the temporary stay of patients allocated internally for the purposes of division of infectious diseases ("typhoid"). For the same purpose was given a second hut in 192.
The interwar period is not enrolled in the larger transformation. In the years 1924-1927 the pavilion of infectious diseases, a new observation building in 1938 comes to extensions and additions, the main building of the same branch. On the basis of the hospital of St . Lazarus arise university clinics. In the year of 1926 internal medicine IA pavilion is converted to Department of Internal Medicine. Department snuggled in the street 15 Copernicus II henceforth is called the name of Department of Internal Medicine . The Department of Surgery at a certain time (1929-1933) becomes the Second Surgical Department. Permanently maintain this position after the war.
www.su.krakow.pl/historia-szpitala-uniwersyteckiego-w-kra…

Posted by Josef Lex (El buen soldado Švejk) on 2013-09-17 18:05:19

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