rebel wilson weight loss


0

That Was the Year That Was - 1922

Monarch – George V

Prime Minister – David Lloyd George (Coalition) (until 19 October), Bonar Law (Conservative) (starting 23 October)

Ireland — Civil War Begins

The Irish Civil War 28 June 1922 – 24 May 1923 was a conflict that followed the Irish War of Independence and accompanied the establishment of the Irish Free State, an entity independent from the United Kingdom but within the British Empire.

The civil war was waged between two opposing groups, Irish republicans and Irish nationalists, over the Anglo-Irish Treaty. The forces of the Provisional Government (which became the Free State in December 1922) supported the Treaty, while the Republican opposition saw it as a betrayal of the Irish Republic (which had been proclaimed during the Easter Rising). Many of those who fought on both sides in the conflict had been members of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) during the War of Independence.

The Civil War was won by the Free State forces, who benefitted from substantial quantities of weapons provided by the British Government. The conflict may have claimed more lives than the War of Independence that preceded it, and left Irish society divided and embittered for generations. Today, two of the main political parties in the Republic of Ireland, Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael, are direct descendants of the opposing sides of the war.

However, the breakaway IRA continued (and continues in various forms) to exist. It was not until 1948 that the IRA renounced military attacks on the forces of the southern Irish state when it became the Republic of Ireland. After this point, the organisation dedicated itself primarily to the end of British rule in Northern Ireland. The IRA Army Council still makes claim to be the legitimate Provisional Government of the Irish Republic declared in 1918 and annulled by the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921.

explosion at a Dudley Port (Tipton) factory

It is remembered as the darkest episode in a Black Country town’s history, when 19 young girls lost their lives in a devastating explosion.

The Dudley Port factory employed dozens of girls to break up the live cartridges left over from the First World War for scrap.

But on March 6, 1922 at around 11.45am one of the cartridges inexplicably went off, igniting or discharging several thousand others waiting to be dealt with.

The explosion ripped through the L K Knowles factory in Groveland Road, where the young women worked, blowing the iron roof from the building and setting it on fire.

A total 24 young girls were working at the time and the explosion killed all but five.

The Express & Star covered the disaster and described how the panic-stricken girls tried to escape the inferno. Many had to be dragged from the burning building. Some were severely burned and injured.

The report describes how the Guest Hospital in Dudley was stretched to its limit.

In July of that year, following a court case, company manufacturer, John Walter Knowles, aged 55, was jailed for five years for manslaughter by Staffordshire Assizes.

A memorial was erected in 1924 at Tipton Cemetery, two years after the explosion and was given a clean-up in 1994 and refurbished in 2010. But there has not been a memorial on the site of the explosion itself.

Edith Thompson and Frederick Bywaters at the Old Bailey in London

In the eyes of the law, and contemporary popular opinion, Edith Thompson was a murderer, a woman who had incited her much younger lover, Freddy Bywaters, to plunge a knife into her cuckolded husband Percy as he walked home from an evening at the theatre on 3 October 1922.

Her mother Ethel Graydon wrote directly to King George V begging for mercy but Edith, 29, was hanged in Holloway Prison less than a month after a jury found her guilty.

Then Mrs Graydon begged to be allowed to visit her daughter’s grave, or at the very least to be told where in the grounds of Holloway Prison it was – to similarly little avail.

Suburban housewife and milliner. Mrs. Thompson was executed on 9 January 1923 because her lover, Frederick Bywaters, murdered her husband Percy.

At their trial, both were found guilty, the Crown "proving" her complicity through her surviving love letters to her lover. Innocent of murder, Mrs. Thompson was hanged for adultery. Both were hanged at the same time, she at Holloway and he at Pentonville. Her permanent memorial in plot 117 was placed there in October 1993 by a number of interested parties. Her grave also contains the bodies of three other women who were executed at Holloway Prison in 1903 and 1954. All the bodies were removed to Brookwood in 1971 when Holloway Prison was completely rebuilt.

On 9th January 1923, Edith Thompson and Frederick Bywaters were hanged in London, she at Holloway, and he at Pentonville. They were both found guilty of her husband’s murder in a quiet street in Ilford one late night in October 1922. Edith was 29 when she died, her lover only 20. The Crown "proved" at the trial at the Old Bailey that although it was Bywaters who stabbed the 32 year old Percy Thompson to death, Edith had set it up. She must have masterminded it because she was a successful businesswoman in London, whereas the much younger Bywaters was a mere merchant sailor.

But there was no colourable evidence to connect Edith Thompson to the crime. Instead, there was a rash and fanciful wish, repeatedly expressed in her many letters to Bywaters, to be rid of her husband. From such references the Crown inferred poison, and exhumed Thompson’s body. However, the two most distinguished pathologists in the country independently concluded that there had been no attempt at poisoning.

If the "Messalina of Ilford", as the popular press dubbed her, could not be found guilty of poisoning, then she had to be found guilty of aiding and abetting the murder. Accordingly the Solicitor General scandalously misled the jury when he stated that Edith Thompson’s correspondence contained the "undoubted evidence" of a "preconcerted meeting between Mrs. Thompson and Bywaters at the place" – meaning the spot where Thompson was murdered. There is no such evidence in the letters, but the jury could not know this, because only half of Edith Thompson’s correspondence with Bywaters was submitted in court. The jury had to assume either that the Solicitor General was lying, or that explicit conspiracy to murder was spelled out in one of the withheld letters.

The judge failed to set the records straight in a summing up that was notoriously unfair to Mrs. Thompson. During the trial he scribbled on his note pad "great love … nonsense. Great and wholesome disgust." The judge could, and should, have told the jury the reason why parts of Edith Thompson’s correspondence were withheld: her letters were deemed too explicit about "women’s things" such as her periods (or lack of them), her two pregnancies (resulting in one abortion and one miscarriage) and, yes, a sexual climax in Bywater’s arms al fresco in Wanstead Park. This was the sort of thing that might have happened to Hollywood starlets, but not to restless British housewives.

Edith Thompson paid a terrible price for daring to be ruled by her passions, and for behaving out of her social class. If confirmation were needed that it was her perceived immorality that brought her to perdition, it is provided by the foreman of her jury. "It was my duty to read them [the letters] to the members of the jury … ‘Nauseous’ is hardly strong enough to describe their contents … Mrs. Thompson’s letters were her own condemnation."

Edith’s famous letters were not at all about sex, or her loathing for her husband. In fact, the bulk of them chronicled her daily life and fantasies for her lover’s benefit, to keep him involved in her suburban routines while he was sailing the oceans of the world. Edith’s natural gift for written expression allowed her to articulate her feelings with remarkable fluency. She devoured books, and substantial parts of her correspondence consist of discussions of sentimental and risqué novels, such as Bella Donna by Robert Hichens. She was the Madame Bovary of North-East London.

A million people signed the petition for the reprieve of Edith Thompson and Freddy Bywaters, particularly for his sake, as he had become something of a hero during the trial for his loyalty to her. His last words to his mother the day before he died, as she left the death cell at Pentonville, were "give my love to Edie". Bywaters died fearless, Edith Thompson disintegrated on the gallows. Rumours about the circumstances surrounding her death began to circulate at once, giving reason to suspect that she may have been pregnant, and that the observations about her "insides falling out" was a euphemism for a miscarriage. It certainly seems odd that her weight increased dramatically from 119 to 133 pounds between the day she was sentenced to death, 11 December 1922, and the day she died, 9 January 1923, even though she ate very little during her last two weeks in prison, and next to nothing during the four days before her death.

Edith Thompson continues to exercise imaginations, and above all consciences. Occasionally I return to East Ham and Ilford, mostly to show friends where Edith Thompson grew up, her school, the church she was married in, her house in Ilford, the parks nearby, the station through which she commuted, even her bank. She was a truly ordinary woman. The gulf between the legal cataclysm that destroyed her and her own sense of position is best revealed by her reaction to the sentence. As her family entered her cell in the bowels of the Old Bailey immediately after the verdict, Edith rushed towards her father, crying "Take me home, Dad!", as if he could.

One cannot avoid feeling that a wider and sinister logic operated against Edith Thompson: her husband was dead, her killer would die, and this woman needed to atone for the loss of the two men. She became the first woman in sixteen years to be hanged in Britain. Edith Thompson was innocent of murder. Her sentence was unjust. Her name must be cleared.

Execution of Edith Thompson

On January 9, 1923 in Holloway Prison, 29-year-old Thompson was half carried to the scaffold, where she had to be held upright while the noose was placed around her neck.

When the gallows trapdoor opened and Thompson fell, the sudden impact of the noose caused her to suffer a massive vaginal haemorrhage. The large amount of blood spilled, combined with the fact that Thompson had gained weight during her imprisonment even while resisting food, led to conjecture that she might have been pregnant, although no post-mortem examination was made. All women hanged in Britain after Thompson were required to wear a special garment made of canvas as a precaution against the problems encountered with Thompson.

John Ellis resigned from his post as a hangman in the following year. Whether this was due to his experiences at the Thompson hanging is open to dispute, especially since he performed 11 more executions (among which one of another woman) before he withdrew. Ellis took to drinking heavily, and attempted suicide in 1924 by shooting himself in the jaw.

Suicide was at that time a criminal offence, and Ellis was charged and bound over for 12 months at Rochdale Magistrates Court. Eight years later, in September 1932, after another bout of heavy drinking, Ellis succeeded in his suicide attempt, cutting his throat with a razor.

launch of the Austin 7 car

The Austin 7 is an economy car that was produced from 1922 until 1939 in the United Kingdom by Austin. It was nicknamed the "Baby Austin" and was at that time one of the most popular cars produced for the British market and sold well abroad. Its effect on the British market was similar to that of the Model T Ford in the US, replacing most other British economy cars and cyclecars of the early 1920s. It was also licensed and copied by companies all over the world.

The first Austin 7 saloon was made by racing driver E C Gordon England’s coachbuilding company. Gordon England had been an aircraft designer with the Bristol Aeroplane Company. His little fabric saloon body based on aircraft principles was said to be the smallest closed car in the world. Its body weighed 28 lb (13 kg) less than the tourer and at £210, almost double the £112 chassis price, it showed there would be a ready sale for an Austin-made steel panelled saloon which was introduced in September 1926 at £165 (equivalent to £9407 today)

Until fabric bodies fell from fashion in the early 1930s the Gordon England Fabric "de luxe" Saloon remained in Austin’s catalogue at a £20 (14%) premium over Austin’s standard steel saloon. It was accompanied by their 2-seater Gordon England Cup Model.

British Broadcasting Company begins radio service in the United Kingdom

The British Broadcasting Company, as the BBC was originally called, was formed on 18 October 1922 by a group of leading wireless manufacturers including Marconi.

Daily broadcasting by the BBC began in Marconi’s London studio, 2LO, in the Strand, on November 14, 1922. John Reith, a 33-year-old Scottish engineer, was appointed General Manager of the BBC at the end of 1922.

Following the closure of numerous amateur stations, the BBC started its first daily radio service in London – 2LO.

After much argument, news was supplied by an agency, and music drama and ‘talks’ filled the airwaves for only a few hours a day. It wasn’t long before radio could be heard across the nation.

A Radio License is introduced to pay for Radio Reception and costs 10 shillings (50 p).

1922 UK news events

January – the year begins with the British Empire at its largest extent, covering a quarter of the world and ruling over one in four people on earth.

British magistrates in India sentence Mahatma Gandhi to 6 years imprisonment for disobedience.

Branston is a British food brand best known for the original Branston Pickle, a jarred pickled chutney first made in 1922 in the village of Branston near Burton upon Trent, Staffordshire by Crosse & Blackwell.

The Handley Page O/10 G-EATN, operated by Handley Page Transport on a scheduled passenger flight from Croydon Airport in London, England, to Paris–Le Bourget Airport outside Paris, France, crashes while on approach to Paris–Le Bourget, killing all five people on board.

For the first time in history, skywriting is used for advertising purposes when Royal Air Force Captain Cyril Turner writes "Daily Mail" over the Derby at Epsom Downs Racecourse near Epsom, Surrey, England.

A factory fire forces English aircraft and motorcycle manufacturer Martinsyde into liquidation with surplus Buzzard airframes in stock.

No. 60 Squadron RAF sees active service against rebel tribesmen in the Northwest Frontier Province of India.

The first attempt to fly around the world begins as British Army Major Wilfred T. Blake, Royal Air Force Captain Norman Macmillan, and British Army Lieutenant Colonel L. E. Broome depart Croydon, England, in the modified Airco DH.9 G-EBDE. They plan to fly to Calcutta, India, in the DH.9, then on to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in a Fairey IIIC floatplane, then to Montreal, Quebec, Canada, in another DH.9, and finally from Montreal to Great Britain, covering 23,690 miles (38,148 km) and completing the journey on September 7, 1922.

Excavations at Sutton Courtenay Anglo-Saxon village in England by Edward Thurlow Leeds.

Rebuilt London Waterloo station is officially opened (engineers: J. W. Jacomb-Hood and A. W. Szlumper; architect: J. R. Scott).

Spalding War Memorial in England, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, is dedicated.

Gerrards Cross Memorial Building in England, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, is dedicated.

Rochdale Cenotaph in England, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, is dedicated.

Wolseley Motors showrooms opens, 160 Piccadilly, London, by W. Curtis Green.

1 January – Transport and General Workers’ Union formed by merger of fourteen smaller unions under its first general secretary Ernest Bevin, forming by far the largest trade union.

7 January – in Ireland, Dáil Éireann ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty.

12 January – British government releases remaining Irish prisoners captured in the War of Independence.

HMS Victory permanently dry docked at Portsmouth.

13 January – flu epidemic has claimed 804 victims in Britain.

24 January – Façade – An Entertainment, poems by Edith Sitwell recited over an instrumental accompaniment by William Walton, first performed, privately in London.

1 February – formal handing over of Beggars Bush Barracks takes place in Dublin, marking the first act of British military withdrawal from Ireland.

6 February – Washington Naval Treaty signed between the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, France and Italy.

28 February – Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom ends its protectorate over Egypt and grants the country nominal independence, reserving control of military and diplomatic matters.

1 March – the Civil Aviation Authority is established.

6 March – an explosion at a Dudley Port (Tipton) factory kills 19 girl workers aged 13 to 15 employed on dismantling explosive cartridges under dangerous working conditions.

29 April – Huddersfield Town A.F.C. win the FA Cup with a 1–0 win over Preston North End in the final at Stamford Bridge, London. From next year, the final will be played at the new stadium being built at Wembley in north London.

16 May – the final group of British troops leave the Curragh Camp in Ireland.

29 May – British Liberal MP Horatio Bottomley jailed for seven years for fraud.

1 June – official founding of the Royal Ulster Constabulary.

22 June – Irish Republican Army agents assassinate Field Marshal Sir Henry Wilson in Belgravia; the assassins are sentenced to death on 18 July.

July – launch of the Austin 7 car, produced at Longbridge.

17 July – County Hall, London opened, as the new headquarters of the London County Council.

20 July – Infanticide Act effectively abolishes the death penalty for a woman who deliberately kills her newborn child while the balance of her mind is disturbed as a result of giving birth, by providing a partial defence to murder.

17 August – Dublin Castle is formally handed over to the Irish Republican Army as the last British Army troops leave.

5 September – an underground explosion at Haig Pit, Whitehaven, in the Cumberland Coalfield, kills 39.

8–9 September – Captain Frank L. Barnard wins the first King’s Cup Race for aeroplanes, flying from Croydon Aerodrome (London) to Glasgow and back in 6 hours 32 minutes in an Airco DH.4A.

7 October – speaking on the radio station 2LO, the Prince of Wales becomes the first member of the royal family to make a public broadcast.

17 October – first hunger march sets out, from Glasgow to London.

18 October – the British Broadcasting Company (BBC) is formed.

19 October – David Lloyd George’s Coalition Ministry resigns over the Chanak Crisis.

23 October – Bonar Law’s Conservative government takes office.

1 November – a broadcasting licence fee of ten shillings is introduced (Equivalent to £22.47 in 2017).

2 November – archaeologist Leonard Woolley begins excavations at the Sumerian city of Ur.

4 November – in Egypt, English archaeologist Howard Carter and his men find the entrance to King Tutankhamen’s tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

14 November – the British Broadcasting Company begins radio service in the United Kingdom, broadcasting from station 2LO in London.

15 November – General election, the first following the partition of Ireland, won by the Conservative Party under Bonar Law. The Labour Party overtakes the Liberal Party as Britain’s second largest political party.

First BBC broadcasts from Birmingham (station 5IT) and Manchester (station 2ZY).

5 December – UK Parliament enacts the Irish Free State Constitution Act, by which it legally sanctions the new Constitution of the Irish Free State.

6 December – the Irish Free State officially comes into existence. George V becomes the Free State’s monarch.

7 December – the Parliament of Northern Ireland votes to remain part of the United Kingdom.

10 December – Francis William Aston wins the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule".

11 December – end of the trial of Edith Thompson and Frederick Bywaters at the Old Bailey in London for the murder of Thompson’s husband. Both found guilty and sentenced to death.

18 December – Carrie Morrison becomes the first woman solicitor admitted to practice in England.

24 December – first BBC broadcast from Newcastle upon Tyne (station 5NO).

Sport

King George V Opens new concrete tennis stadium Center Court at Wimbledon.

1922 was the 29th season of County Championship cricket in England. Yorkshire recovered the title and went on to win it four times in succession.

29 April – Huddersfield Town A.F.C. win the FA Cup with a 1–0 win over Preston North End in the final at Stamford Bridge, London. From next year, the final will be played at the new stadium being built at Wembley in north London.

Football Honours

First Division – Liverpool
Second Division – Nottingham Forest
Third Division North – Stockport County
Third Division South – Southampton
FA Cup – Huddersfield Town
Charity Shield – Tottenham Hotspur
Home Championship – Scotland

Posted by brizzle born and bred on 2019-03-06 11:18:34

Tagged: , That Was the Year That Was – 1922 , 1922 UK news headlines , UK , Britain , British , United Kingdom


Like it? Share with your friends!

0

What's Your Reaction?

hate hate
0
hate
confused confused
0
confused
fail fail
0
fail
fun fun
0
fun
geeky geeky
0
geeky
love love
0
love
lol lol
0
lol
omg omg
0
omg
win win
0
win

0 Comments

Are You a DISCOVER DOCTOR® Affiliate?

What are you waiting for :)
DISCOVER DOCTOR® affiliates earn 35% commissions per sale and so can you!  (sign up below)
AVAIL NOW
Bonus:  Receive free ($197 value) tips & training on affiliate marketing when you become a DISCOVER DOCTOR® affiliate.  Congratulations!
discoverdoctor
close-link

DISCOVER DOCTOR® Fashion

The Best Health Fashion. Period.™
Sign up below for an exclusive coupon code you can use instantly on your first purchase :)
AVAIL NOW
This is a limited time offer
close-link

Diet Not Working?

Special Bonus:  3 Easy Steps to Health Insurance
(Don't Miss This!)
Offer Expires In:
DISCOVER DOCTOR® Limited Time Offer
Lose Weight Now!
close-link
Don't Miss This!

Want to Win the Car of Your Dreams?

Limited Time Offer
Get DREAM CAR!
DISCOVER DOCTOR®
close-link

DISCOVER DOCTOR®

Fast & Easy Stomach Flattening Tips & Strategies Based on Proven Results ($197 value for FREE but only while they last!)
Special Bonus:  Lose Weight and Get Paid $$$
(Don't Miss This!)
AVAIL NOW
This is a limited time offer
flat
close-link

DISCOVER DOCTOR®

Lose Weight, Reduce Stress, Increase Flexibility and Improve Your Life with the Top Yoga Poses. ($197 value for FREE but only while they last!)
Exclusive Bonus:  Dream Car Contest 
(Don't Miss This!)
AVAIL NOW
This is a limited time offer
yoga
close-link

Got Health Insurance?

Special Bonus:  3 Easy Steps to Health Insurance
(Don't Miss This!)
Offer Expires In:
DISCOVER DOCTOR® Limited Time Offer
Save on Health Insurance!
close-link

DISCOVER DOCTOR®

Turn Back the Hands of Time and Look Years Younger with these Anti-Aging Foods ($197 value for FREE but only while they last!)
Exclusive Bonus:  Dream Car Contest 
(Don't Miss This!)
AVAIL NOW
This is a limited time offer
anti-aging
close-link

DISCOVER DOCTOR®

Improve Your Life with These Top Evidence-Based Health and Nutrition Tips ($197 value for FREE but only while they last!)
Exclusive Bonus:  Dream Car Contest 
(Don't Miss This!)
AVAIL NOW
This is a limited time offer
evidence
close-link

DISCOVER DOCTOR®

Special Report Reveals the Top Health Tips Every Senior Should Know ($197 value for FREE but only while they last!)
Exclusive Bonus:  Dream Car Contest 
(Don't Miss This!)
AVAIL NOW
This is a limited time offer
health
close-link

DISCOVER DOCTOR®

Discover the Top Skin Care Tips that will Leave You with Clear, Rejuvenated Skin ($197 value for FREE but only while they last!)
Exclusive Bonus:  Dream Car Contest 
(Don't Miss This!)
AVAIL NOW
This is a limited time offer
skin
close-link

DISCOVER DOCTOR®

Discover the Top 10, All Natural, 100% Safe Strategies to Successfully Managing Stress ($197 value for FREE but only while they last!)
Exclusive Bonus:  Dream Car Contest 
(Don't Miss This!)
AVAIL NOW
This is a limited time offer
stress
close-link

DISCOVER DOCTOR®

Discover the Ten Most Delicious and Nutritious Juicing Recipes ($197 value for FREE but only while they last!)
Exclusive Bonus:  Dream Car Contest 
(Don't Miss This!)
AVAIL NOW
This is a limited time offer
top
close-link

DISCOVER DOCTOR®

Eliminate Productivity Killers and Zero in on the True Secrets to Success ($197 value for FREE but only while they last!)
Exclusive Bonus:  Dream Car Contest 
(Don't Miss This!)
AVAIL NOW
This is a limited time offer
close-link

DISCOVER DOCTOR®

Learn the Critical 5-Steps to Becoming an Effective Leader that Your Market will Follow ($197 value for FREE but only while they last!)
Exclusive Bonus:  Dream Car Contest 
(Don't Miss This!)
AVAIL NOW
This is a limited time offer
close-link

DISCOVER DOCTOR®

Learn How to Nurture a Mindset of Success to Become an Unstoppable Entrepreneur ($197 value for FREE but only while they last!)
Exclusive Bonus:  Dream Car Contest 
(Don't Miss This!)
AVAIL NOW
This is a limited time offer
close-link

DISCOVER DOCTOR®

How to Effectively Manage Your Time, Boost Productivity and Get on the Path to Success ($197 value for FREE but only while they last!)
Exclusive Bonus:  Dream Car Contest 
(Don't Miss This!)
AVAIL NOW
This is a limited time offer
close-link
Flat Belly Made Easy!
DISCOVER DOCTOR® Limited Time Offer
Lose Weight Now!
close-image
Want to be the Next MicroCap Millionaire?
(Don't Miss This!)
Learn More
close-image

GET $5
OFF

on your first purchase
Get Coupon
close-link